Chromosome numbers and pollen fertility in Cryptocoryne

The list with chromosome numbers and pollen fertility is ordered on base number. Within such a group, the ordering is alphabetical or  - more or less - geographical from West to East. The list is based on Jacobsen (1977), Arends et al.(1982), Petersen (1989) and unpublished data from Jacobsen and Bastmeijer.

 

base number
x =
species chromosome count
2n =
pollen fertility range in % distribution
unknown C. consobrina   India
C. decus-silvae   W. Malaysia
         
10 C. ideii 20   Kalimantan
C. hudoroi 20 90 - 100 Kalimantan
C. keei 20 90 - 100 Kalimantan, Sarawak
C. striolata 20   Kalimantan, Sarawak
         
11 C. ciliata var. ciliata 22 70 - 100 India to Papua New Guinea
  C. ciliata var. latifolia 33 10 - 30 India to Papua New Guinea
C. spiralis var. spiralis 33, 66, 88, 110, 132 80 - 100 India
C. spiralis var. cognatoides 66/72 0 - 10 India
         
14 C. cognata 28 90 - 100 India
         
C. beckettii 28, 42 50 - 100, 0 - 10 Sri Lanka
C. nevillii 28   Sri Lanka
C. parva 28 90 - 100 Sri Lanka
C. undulata 28, 42   Sri Lanka
C. walkeri 28, 42   Sri Lanka
C. wendtii 28, 42   Sri Lanka
C. ×willisii 28   Sri Lanka
         
15 C. longicauda 30 90 - 100 Sumatra, W. Malaysia, Sarawak, Kalimantan
  C. moehlmannii 30 90 - 100 Sumatra
C. pontederiifolia 30 80 - 100 Sumatra
C. villosa 30 100 Sumatra
       
17 C. annamica 34   Vietnam
C. vietnamensis 34   Vietnam
       
C. scurrilis 34 90 - 100 Sumatra
C. bangkaensis 68 30 - 100 Sumatra
       
C. cordata var. cordata 34 20 -100 Thailand, W. Malaysia
C. cordata var. diderici 34?   Sumatra, W. Malaysia (?)
C. cordata var. grabowskii 68 90 - 100 Sarawak, Brunei, Kalimantan
C. cordata var. siamensis 102 0 - 10 Thailand
       
C. jacobsenii 34 0 - 10 Sumatra, W. Malaysia (?)
C. minima 34 80 - 100 Sumatra, W. Malaysia
C. affinis 34 10 - 20 W. Malaysia, Thailand
C. elliptica 34   W. Malaysia
C. ×purpurea nothovar. purpurea 34 0 - 10 W. Malaysia
C. ×purpurea nothovar. borneoensis 51 0 - 10 Sarawak, Kalimantan
C. edithiae 51, 68 0 - 30 Kalimantan
C. griffithii 34 90 - 100 W. Malaysia, Singapore, Bintan (ID), Kalimantan
C. nurii 34 90 - 100 Sumatra, W. Malaysia
C. schulzei 34 90 - 100 Sumatra, W. Malaysia
C. zukalii 34 0 - 10 W. Malaysia (?)
C.×timahensis 54 0 - 10 Singapore
       
C. auriculata 34   Sarawak
C. bullosa 34 90 - 100 Sarawak
C. uenoi 34   Sarawak
C. yujii 34   Sarawak
C. ferruginea 34 5 - 100 Sarawak
C. fusca 34 90 - 100 Beliton (ID), Sarawak, Kalimantan
C. pallidinervia 34   Sarawak, Kalimantan
C. noritoi 34   Kalimantan
       
C. aponogetifolia 34   Philippines
C. coronata 34 90 - 100 Philippines
C. pygmaea 34   Philippines
C. usteriana 34 90 - 100 Philippines
       
C. dewitii 34   Papua New Guinea
C. versteegii 34 90 - 100 Papua (ID), Papua New Guinea
         
18 C. alba 36 90 - 100 Sri Lanka
C. bogneri 36 90 - 100 Sri Lanka
C. thwaitesii 36 0 - 100 Sri Lanka
C. waseri   90 - 100 Sri Lanka
       
C. albida 36 80 - 100 Myanmar, Thailand
C. cruddasiana 36   Myanmar
C. sivadasanii 36   India
C. retrospiralis 36, 72   India
C. crispatula var. balansae 36 90 - 100 Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, China
C. crispatula var. decus-mekongensis 36   Laos
C. crispatula var. crispatula 36, 54 60 - 70 Thailand, Laos, Vietnam
C. crispatula var. flaccidifolia 36   Thailand, Vietnam, China
C. crispatula var. planifolia 36   China
C. crispatula var. tonkinensis 36   Thailand, Vietnam
C. crispatula var. yunnanensis 36   China, Thailand
C. loeiensis 36 90 - 100 Thailand
C. mekongensis 36, 54   Thailand, Laos, Cambodia
       
C. lingua 36 90 - 100 Sarawak
C. zaidiana 36   Sarawak

More counting is underway

Chromosome counts
When the chromosome number 2n is two fold the base number the plant is a diploid, in the case 2n is three times the base number the plant is a triploid. And so on. Triploids are often highly sterile (see pollen fertility).

Pollen fertility analysis
In contrast to chromosome counting, pollen analysis is very simple. Pollen from very old herbarium material, alcohol preserved spathe's and fresh material can be used. Staining with 'cotton blue' is simple and fast and you need a relative simple microscope. But you must know what to look for.
Low percentages of stainable pollen indicate that something went wrong in the cell due to not matching the chromosomes in a right way. Very low figures make the plant sterile and cannot propagate in a sexual way. This may indicate a hybrid origin of the plant. The higher the figure the more close were the parents.

See also the pictures of chromosomes

Updated July 2012

Literature:

Arends, J.C., Bastmeijer, J.D. & Jacobsen, N., 1982. Chromosome numbers and taxonomy in Cryptocoryne (Araceae).II. Nord.J.Bot. 2 : 453-463.
Jacobsen, N., 1977. Chromosome numbers and taxonomy in Cryptocoryne (Araceae). Bot.Notiser 130: 71-87.
Petersen, G., 1989. Cytology and systematics of Araceae. Nord. J. Bot. 9: 119-166.
Reumer, J.W.F., 1984. Cytotaxonomy and evolution in Cryptocoryne (Araceae). Genetica 65 : 149-158.