Cryptocoryne spiralis group from India

Since 2013 we distinguish four varieties of C. spiralis: var. spiralis (1830), var. huegelii (1855), var. cognatoides (1931) & var. caudigera (2013); var. huegelii and var. cognatoides were moved into spiralis respectively in 2013 and 1993 (Bogner 2013).

C. spiralis var. spiralis has by far the largest distribution, rougly the Western Ghats where it is found in the lowlands. Within var. spiralis there is a great variation. Some forms produces runners, others multiply by rhizone division, there is quite a variation in the spathe. There is also is a great difference in submersed growth, some forms grow emerged as small as 30 cm but submerged to over 1 m lenght. Submerged plants are hardly, if ever, seen in herbaria.
Var. huegelii grows at higher altitude. This plant is - as far as I know - not in cultivation ?? Would be nice!
Var. cognatoides is also from higher altitudes. The plant is said to seasonal but in cultivation it grows all the year over.
Var. caudigera is found at 1300 m in a Shola forest, but Bogner (2013) also found a herbarium specimen from the lowlands.

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var. spiralis
Easy to grow and for that reason common in cultivation. many different forms.
coll. unknown, cult. B 554
var. huegelii
A very broad leaved plant up to 60 cm. Not in cultivation?
coll. Yadav 335
herb. M. photo Hoeck
var. cognatoides
In cultivation leaves up to 50 cm and a very long spathe.
coll. Yadav 337, cult. B 669
var. caudigera (TYPE)
Emerged grown up to 15 cm, submerged ca. 30 cm.
coll. ex Sivadasan, cult. Bogner NJ 3411
herb. M. photo Hoeck
       
Distribution of var. spiralis
Distribution of var. huegelii
Distribution of var. cognatoides
Distribution of var. caudigera
       

Chromosome numbers known for var. spiralis: 33, 66, 88, 110, 132; var. cognatoides: 66/72.

A key for the varieties is found in Bogner 2013 (Document service).

As fas as known, C. spiralis varieties are easy to grow in a neutral mineral soil and and are robust plants, growing in full sun in relative dry air. Vars. spiralis and cognatoides flower easy in cultivation. For the aquarium vars. spiralis and caudigera are recommended.

Literature (this is a rather long list, reflecting the 'long history' of this plant, from 1830 ! )

Arends, J.C., Bastmeijer, J.D. & Jacobsen, N., 1982. Chromosome numbers and taxonomy in Cryptocoryne (Araceae).II. Nord.J.Bot. 2 : 453-463.
Beest, M. te, 1998. A taxonomic study of the genus Cryptocoryne (Araceae) of South India. Calicut University.
Blatter E. & C.McCann, 1931. Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency. J.Bomb.Nat.H.Soc. 35 : 13-17, t.I+II. (Document service)
Bogner, J., 1974. Reisindrukken uit India en Ceylon. Het Aquarium 44(8) : 210-213.
Bogner, J., 2013. Eine neue Vatietat der Cryptocoryne spiralis (Retzius) Fischer ex Wydler (Araceae) ais Indien. Aqua Planta 38(4): 141-148. (Document service)
Bogner, J. & Jacobsen, N., 1987. Die systematische Stellung von Lagenandra gomezii (Schott) Bogner et Jacobsen, comb.nov.   Aqua-Planta 2-87 : 43-50.
Dalzell, N.A. & A.Gibson, 1861. Cryptocoryne. Bombay Flora : 257.
Engler, A., 1879. Cryptocoryne Fischer ex Wydler. DC Mon.Phan. II : 623-631.
Engler, A., 1882. Aracee della Malesia e della Papuasia raccolte da in O.Beccari, Malesia 1 : 296-300, Abb. 27-28.
Engler, A., 1889. Cryptocoryne Fischer. Pflanzenfamilien II-3 : 148.
Engler, A., 1898. Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Araceae VII. Englers Bot. Jahrbuch 25: 28.
Engler, A., 1920. (Cryptocoryne, Lagenandra in) Das Pflanzenreich IV.23.F. Araceae - Aroideae : 232-249, Leipzig.
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Hooker, J.D., 1893. Cryptocoryne, Lagenandra in Flora of British India 6 : 492-496.
Jacobsen, N., 1977. Chromosome numbers and taxonomy in Cryptocoryne (Araceae). Bot.Notiser 130 : 71-87.
Jacobsen, N., 1980. The Cryptocoryne albida group (Araceae) of mainland Asia.   Misc.papers LH Wageningen 19 : 183-204.
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Jacobsen, N., M.Sivadasan & J.Bogner, 1989. Ungewöhnliche vegetative Vermehrung bei der Gattung Cryptocoryne (Teil 1). Aqua-Planta 3-89 : 83-88.
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Mühlberg, H., 1980. Das grosse Buch der Wasserpflanzen. Dausien, Hanau.
Paffrath, K., 1972. Ein seltener Wasserkelch, Cryptocoryne retrospiralis. Aq.Terr. 1972/7 : 231-234.
Paffrath, K., 1973. Grassblättricher Wasserkelch, Cryptocoryne retrospiralis. Das Aquarium 7 : 94-95.
Rajakumar, T. J. S., P. Daniel, R. Selvakumari, S. Murugesan & N. Chellaperumal, 2010. Cryptocoryne tambraparaniana, a new species of Araceae from Tirunelveli district, Tamil Nadu, India. Indian Journal of Forestry 33(4): 643-646.
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Roxburgh, W., 1819. Ambrosina ciliata. Plants of the Coast of  Coromandel III : 90-91, Pl.
Roxburgh, W., 1832. Ambrosinia. Flora Ind. III : 491-494.
Schott, H.W., 1855. Cryptocoryne Fischer. Aroideae II : 7-8, Taf. 12,13 (Document service).
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Sunil, C.N. & M. Sivadasan, 2009.
Cryptocoryne consobrina Schott (Araceae), eine lang verschollene Art aus Indien. Aqua Planta 34(4): 135-140
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January 2015